Searle (1979) "A taxonomy of illocutionary acts," Expression and Meaning
(pp. 15-16) から：
Expressives. The illocutionary point of this class is to express the psychological state specified in the sincerity condition about a state of affairs specified in the propositional content. The paradigm of expressive verbs are "thank", "congratulate", "apologize", "condole", "deplore", and "welcom". Notice that in expressives there is no direction of fit. In performing an expressive, the speaker is neither trying to get the world to match the words nor the words to match the world, rather the truth of the expressed proposition is presupposed. Thus, for example, when I apologize for having stepped on your toe, it is not my purpose either to claim that your toe was stepped on nor to get it stepped on. This fact is neatly reflected in the syntax (of English) by the fact that the paradigm expressive verbs in their performative occurrence will not take that clauses but require a gerundive nominalization transformation (or some other nominal). One cannot say:
*I apologize that I stepped on your toe;
rather the correct English is,
I apologize for stepping on your toe.
Similarly, one cannot have:
*I congratulate you that you won the race
*I thank you that you paid me the money.
One must have:
I congratulate you on winning the race (congratulations on winning the race)
I thank you for paying me the money (thanks for paying me the money).
These syntactical facts, I suggest, are consequences of the fact that there is no direction of fit in expressives. The truth of the proposition expressed in an expressive is presupposed. (...)
- 表出型の遂行動詞では，that 節ではなく動名詞などの名詞化が要求される．